• Waheed Ahmad
  • Tazeen Tazeen
  • Nawal Naveed
  • Maham Irfan
  • Andleeb Farooq


INTRODUCTION: Stem Cells therapy mainly focuses on the use of stem cells, which have the potential, to revert back the affected brain cells into healthy brain cells which provides a ray of hope for the individual that is affected with traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury is sudden damage to the brain brought about by a blast or shock to the head. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals below the age of 45 years in the world. Stem cell therapy uses.
Mainly there are two modes by which stem cells are employed to treat traumatic brain injuries. Exogenous and Endogenous stem cell approaches to treat damage brain. Although the use of stem cell therapy has brought about various ethical concerns which needs to be addressed carefully in order to take full advantage of this mysterious technology being introduced recently.
Stem cell therapy withstands the most effective approach for treating affected brain cells which will further bring plethora of wonders for the human beings if allowed to continue in a progressive way.
CONCLUSION: Stem cell therapy as a new alternative to all previous technologies to treat the damage brain cells have emerged as one of the most effective, long lasting and applicable in true means. All previous therapies that were and are used for the treatment of brain cells have not proven successful due to its low applicability. Stem cell therapy as a technology in its early days also faces various ethical challenges and concerns regarding its use to revert back the affected brain cells.
KEYWORDS: Exogenous stem cells, Endogenous stem cells.


Comm E. Traumatic Brain Injury. AANN Core Curriculum for Neuroscience Nursing. 2004:327.

Mittenberg W, Zielinski R, Fichera S. Recovery from mild head injury: A treatment manual for patients. Psychotherapy in private practice. 1993 Aug 26;12(2):37-52..

Cifu DX, Caruso D. Traumatic brain injury. Demos Medical Publishing; 2010 Apr 29.

Erceg S, Ronaghi M, Stojković M. Human embryonic stem cell differentiation toward regional specific neural precursors. Stem cells. 2009 Jan;27(1):78-87.

Dunkerson J, Moritz KE, Young J, Pionk T, Fink K, Rossignol J, Dunbar G, Smith JS. Combining enriched environment and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy results in improved cognitive and motor function following traumatic brain injury. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2014 Jan 1;32(5):675-87..

Abdullah AI, Pollock A, Sun T. The path from skin to brain: generation of functional neurons from fibroblasts. Molecular neurobiology. 2012 Jun 1;45(3):586-95.

Leão RN, Reis A, Emirandetti A, Lewicka M, Hermanson O, Fisahn A. A voltage-sensitive dye-based assay for the identification of differentiated neurons derived from embryonic neural stem cell cultures. PloS one. 2010 Nov 4;5(11):e13833.

Ramos-Mejía V, Montes R, Bueno C, Ayllón V, Real PJ, Rodríguez R, Menendez P. Residual expression of the reprogramming factors prevents differentiation of iPSC generated from human fibroblasts and cord blood CD34+ progenitors. PloS one. 2012 Apr 24;7(4):e35824..

Patzke N, Kaswera C, Gilissen E, Ihunwo AO, Manger PR. Adult neurogenesis in a giant otter shrew (Potamogale velox). Neuroscience. 2013 May 15;238:270-9.

Li Y, Calfa G, Inoue T, Amaral MD, Pozzo-Miller L. Activity-dependent release of endogenous BDNF from mossy fibers evokes a TRPC3 current and Ca2+ elevations in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Journal of neurophysiology. 2010 May;103(5):2846-56.

Lodato MA, Ng CW, Wamstad JA, Cheng AW, Thai KK, Fraenkel E, Jaenisch R, Boyer LA. SOX2 co-occupies distal enhancer elements with distinct POU factors in ESCs and NPCs to specify cell state. PLoS Genet. 2013 Feb 21;9(2):e1003288.

DeWald LE, Rodriguez JP, Levine JM. The RE1 binding protein REST regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011 Mar 2;31(9):3470-83

Shin SL, Rotter S, Aertsen A, De Schutter E. Stochastic description of complex and simple spike firing in cerebellar Purkinje cells. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2007 Feb;25(3):785-94.

Luo J, Bo X, Wu D, Yeh J, Richardson PM, Zhang Y. Promoting survival, migration, and integration of transplanted Schwann cells by overâ€expressing polysialic acid. Glia. 2011 Mar;59(3):424-34.

Kaneko N, Kako E, Sawamoto K. Prospects and limitations of using endogenous neural stem cells for brain regeneration. Genes. 2011 Mar;2(1):107-30.

Simões CM. Morte cerebral e colheita de órgãos-Perspetiva social (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade de Coimbra).

Srinivasan S, Johari V. Response to proposed research to reverse brain death: more than regulatory failure. Indian J Med Ethics. 2016 Jul;1(3):134-7

Basu S. The transplantation of human organs and tissues act 1994 a critical study.